This is just a “file dump” timeline of the history of this ancient antiviral tree bark and its derivatives.

340 AD. The anti-fever properties of qinghao first described by Ge Hong in China. This is Artemisia annua. Malaria Site

1600. A Jesuit is said to have been cured of fever at Malacotas, near Loxa, by taking the bark given to him by the Indians, as long ago as 1600. A memoir of the Lady Ana de Osorio, countess of Chinchon and vice-queen of Peru (A. D. 1629-39) with a plea for the correct spelling of the Chinchona genus

Around 1600. “Quinine, as a component of the bark of the cinchona (quina-quina) tree, was used to treat malaria from as early as the 1600s, when it was referred to as the “Jesuits’ bark,” “cardinal’s bark,” or “sacred bark.” These names stem from its use in 1630 by Jesuit missionaries in South America, though a legend suggests earlier use by the native population[2]. According to this legend, an Indian with a high fever was lost in an Andean jungle. Thirsty, he drank from a pool of stagnant water and found that it tasted bitter. Realizing that the water had been contaminated by the surrounding quina-quina trees he thought he was poisoned. Surprisingly, his fever soon abated, and he shared this accidental discovery with fellow villagers, who thereafter used extracts from the quina-quina bark to treat fever.” Quinine, an old anti-malarial drug in a modern world: role in the treatment of malaria

1618-1638. “During the Thirty Years War, 1618–1648, the British fought alongside the Dutch and soon took a liking to Dutch gin, which the Dutch themselves called ‘genever’, meaning juniper in Dutch. In English, ‘genever’ became gin and an English obsession was born as it made its way back with the soldiers. This is also thought to be where the term ‘Dutch courage’ comes from, referencing Dutch soldiers reportedly enjoying a stiff drink of gin before a battle to bolster their morale.” Origins: Gin and Tonic — The Drink That Saved The British Empire

1620-1630. It is believed that the Spanish Jesuit missionaries in Peru were taught the healing power of the bark by natives living in the forests of the Andes Mountains, between 1620 and 1630. The first written record of a malaria cure with cinchona bark dates back to 1630. Don Juan López de Canizares, the Spanish governor of Loxa, a flourishing Peruvian city, was relieved of fever by drinking a cinchona infusion. (Loxa Bark). Malaria Site

August 11, 1621. Lady Ana de Osario marries the fourth Count of Chinchon to become the Countess of Chinchon. “The fourth Count of Chinchon, as has already been mentioned, married the Lady Ana de Osorio, widow of the Marquis of Salinas, at Madrid, on Sunday (or, as some authorities say, Wednesday), the 11th of August 1621. The Count and Countess resided, when not in attendance at Court, at Segovia or Chinchon.” (The fourth Count of Chinchón was Luis Jerónimo de Cabrera). A memoir of the Lady Ana de Osorio, countess of Chinchon and vice-queen of Peru (A. D. 1629-39) with a plea for the correct spelling of the Chinchona genus

1628 – January 14, 1629. In 1628 the Count of Chinchon was appointed Viceroy of Peru, the greatest and most important trust that could be conferred upon a subject, for in those days the Viceroyalty of Peru included the whole of South America, excepting Brazil. The Count and Countess went out by way of Panama, landed at Callao in December, and made their solemn entry into Lima on the 14th of January 1629, when the new Viceroy received the command from his predecessor, the Marquis of Guadalcazar. A memoir of the Lady Ana de Osorio, countess of Chinchon and vice-queen of Peru (A. D. 1629-39) with a plea for the correct spelling of the Chinchona genus


1636. in about 1636 an Indian of Malacotas revealed the secret virtues of the quinquina bark to the Corregidor Canizares.

1638. But the most notable historical event in this Viceroy’s time was the cure of his Countess, in the year 1638, of a tertian fever, by the use of Peruvian bark. The news of her illness at Lima reached Don Franciso Lopez de Canizares, who was then Corregidor of Loxa, and who had become acquainted with the febrifuge virtues of the bark. I have convinced myself that the remedy was unknown to the Indians in the time of the Yncas. It is mentioned neither by the Ynca Garcilasso nor by Acosta, in their lists of Indian medicines, nor is it to be found in the wallets of itinerant native doctors, whose materia medica has been handed down from father to son for centuries. It appears, however, to have been known to the Indians round Loxa, a town in the Andes, about 230 miles south of Quito. / In 1638, therefore, he’ sent a parcel of it to the Vice-Queen, and the new remedy, administered by her physician, Dr Don Juan de Vega, effected a rapid and complete cure. It is known by tradition amongst the bark collectors, that the particular species from which the bark was taken which cured the Countess of Chinchon, was that known to them as Cascarilla (bark) de Chahuarguera*. /. There are four alkaloids, with febrifuge virtues, in the Peruvian bark — quinine, quinidine, chinchonine, and chinchonidine. The Cascarilla de Chahiarguera abounds in chinchonidine, and Mr Howard has pointed out* that this alkaloid probably contributed to the cure of the Countess, It is now understood that owing to its being at the same time as efficacious as and much cheaper than quinine, the chinchonidine will eventually be the chief agent by which health and the cure of fevers will be diffused among the vast native population of British India.

1638. The legend of quinine’s discovery accepted in Europe differs though, and involves the Spanish Countess of Chinchon who, while in Peru, contracted a fever that was cured by the bark of a tree. Returning to Spain with the bark, she introduced quinine to Europe in 1638… Quinine, an old anti-malarial drug in a modern world: role in the treatment of malaria

Spring 1640. The Countess of Chinchon returned to Spain in the spring of 1640, with her husband, and bringing with her a supply of that precious quina bark which had worked so wonderful a cure upon herself, and the healing virtues of which she intended to distribute amongst the sick on her lord’s estates, and. to make known generally in Europe. The bark powder was most appropriately called Countess’s powder {Pulvis Comitissce), and by this name it was long known to druggists and in commerce. Dr Don Juan de Vega, the learned physician* of the Countess of Chinchon, followed his patient to Spain, bringing with him a quantity of quina bark, which he sold at Seville at 100 reals the pound. The bark continued to have the same high value and the same reputation, until the trees became scarce, and the collectors began to adulterate it. A memoir of the Lady Ana de Osorio, countess of Chinchon and vice-queen of Peru (A. D. 1629-39) with a plea for the correct spelling of the Chinchona genus

1672. Sir Robert Talbot treats King Charles II with Cinchona Bark. Charles II makes him the Physician Royal. “After several years of study and testing, he developed what we would now call a patent medicine, a secret formulation that was essentially an infusion of cinchona powder in white wine. In 1672, Talbor popularized his remedy by publishing Pyretologia: a Rational Account of the Cause and Cures of Agues.” From Shakespeare to Defoe: Malaria in England in the Little Ice Age

1682. Sir Robert Talbor publishes The English Remedy, or Talbor’s Wonderful Secret for Cureing of Agues and Feavers. Ordered published by the King according to him. This is Cinchona Bark. From Shakespeare to Defoe: Malaria in England in the Little Ice Age. “…there was no other way to satisfy my desire, but by that good ole way, observation and experiment: To this purpose I planted my self in Effex near t the Sea side, in a place where Agues are the epidemical diseases, where you will find but few persons but either are, or have been afflicted with a tedious Quartan: In this place I lived some years, making the best use of my time I could, for the improving my knowledge; curiously observing all Symptoms, Diagnosticks and Prognosticks; by which observations, and the assistance of my reason (God blessing my endeavours) I have attained to a perfect knowledge of the cure of the most inveterate and pertinacious Agues, and can inform a patient to a day when I will remove the fits, and what method I will proceed in with him; though to several persons, according to their several constitutions…”

1717. “As early as the Siege of Belgrade in 1717, cinchona bark was being used to suppress malaria in soldiers.” Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine

1735. THE Countess of Chinchon’s powders continued to be imported into Europe for a century, and the beautiful trees whence the bark was taken were known as quina or quinquina trees. It was not until the French expedition of Gondailiine and Jussieu went to America in 1735, that the forests of Loxa were visited by scientific men, and a few years after- wards Condamine sent specimens of the quinquina plant to the great Swedish botanist Linnaeus, who was the first to describe it. The name of a new and most important genus was then to be given by Linnaeus, and he chose for it the most appropriate that could possibly have been selected, namely, that of the noble lady who had first made its healing virtues known. A memoir of the Lady Ana de Osorio, countess of Chinchon and vice-queen of Peru (A. D. 1629-39) with a plea for the correct spelling of the Chinchona genus

1742. “In 1742, Linnaeus gave the name of Chinchona to the genus,* with the intention of thus immortalising the great and beneficent acts of the Countess of Chinchon. Of course that intention is frustrated by spelling the name wrong. But most unfortunately Linnaeus was misinformed as to the name of her whom he desired to honour. This is to be accounted for by his having received his knowledge of the Countess of Chinchon through a French source, and French writers frequently alter the spelling of names that are not French. Thus misled, Linnaeus spelt the word Cinchona {Gen. PL 1742), and Cinhona {Gen. PI. ed. 1767), omitting one or two letters; but the fact that he altered the spelling in his different editions proves beyond any doubt that he desired to spell the word correctly.” Three hundred and fifty years of the Peruvian fever bark

1777. ” James Lind of the British Royal Navy in 1777 recommended that ships on the Guinea station (west Africa) “be supplied with a large quantity of bark in powder and of wine to be issued occasionally to those who are sent in boats up rivers and on shore.” Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine

1820. “Before 1820, the bark of the cinchona tree was first dried, ground to a fine powder, and then mixed into a liquid (commonly wine) before being drunk. In 1820, quinine was extracted from the bark, isolated and named by Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Caventou. Purified quinine then replaced the bark as the standard treatment for malaria. Quinine and other cinchona alkaloids including quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine (emphasis mine) are all effective against malaria.” Quinine, an old anti-malarial drug in a modern world: role in the treatment of malaria. Note that natural Cinchona Bark has several anti-viral compounds. Thus the natural products should be more effective against more viruses than any one of the individual compounds which the Pharmaceutical Companies derive, if the plants are bred to have sufficient representation of certain necessary active compounds. The entourage can make a big difference in effect. This are facts that Pharmaceutical Companies do not want the public to know.

1825. “By 1825 these had become the standard treatment for malaria.  Indeed ‘cinchona bark and its derived quinine alkaloids’ were ‘taking on an increasingly important role in the occupation and safe administration of tropical colonies.'” Products of the Empire: Cinchona: a short history

1840. “What did tonic water come from? Many equate the history of gin and tonic with the colonial British sitting on their verandas in India sipping on the beverage as the day passes by. In many ways, this is true. The quintessentially British cocktail was first consumed in the 19th century as a prophylactic against malaria. Tonic contains quinine powder, a substance extracted from the bark of the cinchona tree, which the burra- and memsahibs of India used to imbibe in copious amounts to stave off the dreaded ‘fever’. By 1840, 700 tons were being sold in India annually, most of it mixed with sugar, water and a dash of gin to soften its notoriously bitter edge.” A History of Gin and Tonic

1852.  “Trees were being felled in indigenous regions, prices rising and supplies diminishing.  Thus in 1852 a Dutch expedition, followed by a British expedition in 1860 led by Sir Clements Markham, was sent to South America in order to procure cinchona seeds and plants which could be established on plantations in the colonies.  Transportation of these seeds and saplings posed its own difficulties.  In the Cinchona planter’s manual, for example, Owen describes how on flat land ‘bridges are often necessary for crossing ravines.'” Products of the Empire: Cinchona: a short history

1856. “In 1856, William Henry Perkin, then age 18, was given a challenge by his professor, August Wilhelm von Hofmann, to synthesize quinine.” He discovered a purple dye, Mauveine, in the process. Wikipedia

In 1856, during the Easter holidays from college, (William Henry) Perkin worked on a task set for him by the head of the Royal College of Chemistry, August Wilhelm von Hofmann. Only 18 years old, Perkin was in his second year of working as Hofmann’s research assistant. Hofmann was keen to develop a synthetic form of quinine, which was in demand as a treatment for malaria. Hofmann was interested in the chemical synthesis of natural compounds, and thought quinine was a good challenge, given that its natural form was difficult to extract. Perkin’s task was to carry out experiments using a substance called aniline, a colourless aromatic oil derived from coal tar. Perkin worked on his task in a rudimentary laboratory at home. His experiment involved him oxidising aniline using potassium dichromate. The oxidisation produced a black precipitate that, when the colour was removed, dyed silk purple. He recorded his findings in a notebook, which the museum holds on loan from the City of London School. WILLIAM HENRY PERKIN AND THE WORLD’S FIRST SYNTHETIC DYE

1858. The antidote was quinine, a bitter substance from the bark of a South American evergreen, often taken with gin, and which, in 1858, one Erasmus Bond rendered in an acceptable form by inventing tonic water. Winston Churchill was in no doubt about the value of this breakthrough, saying: “Gin and tonic has saved more Englishmen’s lives, and minds, than all the doctors in the Empire.” A TONIC FOR THE TROOPS: THE SPIRIT OF THE G&T ENDURES

August, 1861. Date given to a drawing? Cinchona plants at Ootacamund, August 1861.
From Travels in Peru and India, C.R. Markham, 1862
Reproduced in Geographical Journal SOURCE

April 1862. Quinine supplies are a factor in the Civil War of the United States. “The first test of this theory came in April 1862 in Shiloh, Tennessee, where Union General William T. Sherman’s forces met the enemy in a bloody battle. Before and after the fight, typhoid, diarrhea, scurvy, and the fevers associated with malarial diseases ravaged troops on both sides.   ….  The Northern blockade of Southern ports made importing quinine difficult, and smuggling from Northern or European sources proved unreliable.    …. Surgeon General Moore’s Northern counterpart, Union army Surgeon General William Hammond created the U.S. Army Laboratory to ensure the purity of drugs and to create standards for drugs purchased by medical purveyors (agents authorized to purchase raw materials for medicines) and distributed to the various theaters of war.    …  The diseases Northern soldiers encountered in the South forced the North to industrialize its quinine production, which in turn required an emphasis on quality control and sophisticated channels of testing and distribution. The Civil War, although a time of incalculable destruction, provided the ingredients and conditions necessary to create the nation’s first example of modern large-scale drug manufacturing as well as the first government-run drug-testing laboratories.” SOURCE

1865. Charles Ledger smuggles Cinchona with high Quinine yields out of South America. SOURCE. “This variety became known as the Cinchona Calisaya Ledgeriana and its export ultimately  ‘destroyed the South American monopoly on quinine.'” SOURCE

Image is a snapshot of Three hundred and fifty years of the Peruvian fever bark, L J Bruce-Chwatt

1866-1868. Derivatives of Cinchona bark are tested extensively in one of the earliest clinical trials. “Quinine and other cinchona alkaloids including quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine are all effective against malaria. The efficacies of these four alkaloids were evaluated in one of the earliest clinical trials, conducted from 1866 to 1868 in 3600 patients using prepared sulfates of the alkaloids. With the main outcome measure of “cessation of febrile paroxysms”, all four alkaloids were found to be comparable, with cure rates of >98%.” SOURCE

1864. Cinchona Bark Plantation drawing in India, 1864.

1865. The Dutch by Cinchona seeds and plant them in Java. Three hundred and fifty years of the Peruvian fever bark

1870. “the Schweppes company in 1870, still recognised for its tonic water today… invented a process to carbonate mineral water and found it worked a treat with Bond’s recipe. They named the tonic water Indian Quinine Tonic and the mixer made a fortune for the firm as the British Empire reached its peak.” SOURCE

10.26.1872. Artist unknown. ‘The production of quinine in India, the cinchona plantations at Darjeeling Bengal; Cinchona succirubra 30 feet high’. SOURCE

1890. “…after 1890 quinine became the predominantly used alkaloid, mainly due to a change in supply from South American to Javan cinchona bark, which contained a higher proportion of quinine.” SOURCE

1891. Paul Ehrlich’s synthetic methylene blue compound, developed as a dye, becomes a competitor against Quinine for anti-malaria drug. Methylene blue was one of the first chemical compounds described as a “magic bullet.” The magic bullet theory is the theory of chemotherapy, where a specific organism can be killed with a specific chemical that does not harm the host. SOURCE

1898-1904. The United States occupies Cuba in the Spanish American War. Quinine is given to troops to fight Yellow Fever.

1904-1910 The United States again uses Quinine to fight malaria in the construction of the Panama Canal which began in 1904. “The control of malaria was vital for the construction of the Panama Canal. The discovery by Major Ronald Ross that malaria was transmitted by mosquitoes had tremendous impact on development programs in the tropics. One of the first of these was the construction of the Panama Canal, which began within a few years after Dr. Ross’s discovery. During the American occupation of Havana, Cuba, regulations were put into effect by the United States Army for the control of yellow fever that consisted of the screening of houses and extensive drainage to reduce breeding of mosquitoes. Not only was yellow fever eliminated, but malaria transmission was also greatly reduced. Work in Havana was under the direction of Surgeon Major W. C. Gorgas.” … “The result of this malaria program was eradication of yellow fever and a dramatic decrease in malaria deaths. The death rate due to malaria in employees dropped from 11.59 per 1,000 in November 1906 to 1.23 per 1,000 in December 1909. It reduced the deaths from malaria in the total population from a maximum of 16.21 per 1,000 in July 1906 to 2.58 per 1,000 in December 1909.” The Panama Canal.

William Crawford Gorgas

During the building of the Panama Canal there are signs of serious side effects including death due to the huge amounts of quinine that some people were taking. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine. Blackwater fever usually occurs in expatriates living for several years in a highly malarious area while taking intermittent and variable amounts of quinine.17,20 Rarely, a massive hemolytic event occurred in a person who had previously tolerated the medication, resulting in hemoglobinuria (blackwater), sometimes progressing to acute renal failure and death. During the early 20th century, blackwater fever was the leading medical cause of death in expatriate soldiers and administrators in colonial Africa and some parts of south Asia. The relationship to quinine was not universal, but a series of blackwater fever patients showed that a larger than normal quinine dose usually preceded hemolysis by some hours. During the building of the Panama Canal from 1904–1910, Colonel William Gorgas of the U.S. Army distributed literally tons of quinine, subsequently observing 226 blackwater fever cases from a total worker population of 50,000; it occurred mostly in Spanish and Italian laborers.18,24 The pathophysiology of blackwater fever was widely studied, but remains poorly understood. Its association with prophylactic quinine meant that very different national policies existed, and different groups of expatriates had fixed ideas about what was or was not the appropriate use of the drug.1,8,19 Blackwater fever entered the folklore of African expatriates, where besides being greatly feared as supposedly always being lethal, required never moving a blackwater fever patient from his sickbed as this would surely cause immediate death.

1913. Colonial officials sought to stabilize the colonial Cinchona export-business by encouraging the integration of the quinine industry on a global scale. Most important was the colonial state’s sponsorship in 1913 of the Quinine Agreement, establishing a set price for Cinchona bark, which created the world’s first pharmaceutical cartel. Building the world’s supply of quinine: Dutch colonialism and the origins of a global pharmaceutical industry

8.3.1917. Date of photo of Australian soldiers in New Guinea receiving Quinine rations.

1918. “Second Quinine Convention gave control of Quinine to the Dutch”. Three hundred and fifty years of the Peruvian fever bark Note: I can’t find a document on the “Second Quinine Convention.” I believe it has something to do with the Treaty of Versailles outlining Germany’s reparation responsibilities which included Quinine. “Germany accords to the Reparation Commission an option to require as part of reparation the delivery by Germany of such quantities and kinds of dyestuffs and chemical drugs as the Commission may designate, not exceeding 50 per cent of the total stock of each and every kind of dyestuff and chemical drug in German or under German control at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty.” … The above expression “dyestuffs and chemical drugs” includes all synthetic dyes and drugs and intermediate or other products used in connection with dyeing, so far as they are manufactured for sale. The present arrangement shall also apply to cinchona bark and salts of quinine.”

1918. The Spanish Flu. “In 1918, in the midst of the worst flu pandemic in history, doctors all over the world prescribed quinine, another anti-malarial drug, even though there was no evidence that it worked for flu.” What the 1918 flu pandemic can teach us about coronavirus drug trials

1920s – 1940s. “Quinine remained the mainstay of malaria treatment until the 1920s, when more effective synthetic anti-malarials became available. The most important of these drugs was chloroquine, which was extensively used, especially beginning in the 1940s [6]. With heavy use, chloroquine resistance developed slowly.”  Quinine, an old anti-malarial drug in a modern world: role in the treatment of malaria

1934. “Hans Andersag first synthesized Resochin, later called chloroquine, at the Bayer Company in Eberfeld, Germany in 1934. The synthesis resulted from the structural analysis of the quinine molecule and the localization of the antimalarial activity at the level of the oxyquinolinebenzene nucleus. It was initially rejected as being too toxic.” SOURCE

1942. “Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942.” Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine

1942. Frances Kelsey traveled to South America, where she “learned” that embryonic rabbits could not break down quinine. “It was early 1942 and war was raging in the jungles of the Pacific. In addition to fighting the Japanese, Allied troops found themselves under attack by malaria-carrying mosquitoes. And since enemy soldiers had already captured several plantations of cinchona trees, the source of the anti-malarial quinine, the search was on for an effective quinine substitute to combat the disease.  ….  The war ended without finding a good substitute for quinine. But Kelsey did learn something valuable from the experience. She learned that rabbits metabolized quinine rapidly, but pregnant rabbits had less ability to break down the drug, and embryonic rabbits could not break it down at all. She also learned that drugs could pass through the placental barrier between mother and unborn child. These insights would serve Kelsey well some 15 years later when in early 1960, as a new Food and Drug Administration employee, she was asked to evaluate a drug most thought was harmless. That drug was thalidomide.” SOURCE. Note: the source link is an FDA bio on Frances Kelsey. The link would no longer function at the time I uploaded it to wordpress.

November 1943. Cinchona seedlings are grown near Washington D.C. for shipment to South America. SOURCE

1956. “Resistance of the Plasmodium to chloroquine was first suspected by Ray and Sharma in 1956, approximately 11 years after its introduction. The first confirmed cases were in two Americans who returned from Colombia with chloroquine resistant P. falciparum strains. Their strains did respond to treatment with pyrimethamine and quinine. Shortly thereafter, the U.S. Army began to see rising incidence of malaria among troops in Vietnam who were being prophylaxed with chloroquine. Resistance was becoming a serious issue, raising the disturbing possibility of reintroduction of malaria into countries where it had been eradicated decades before.” SOURCE

Early-mid 1960s. Klaus Barbie shipped cinchona bark to Germany for processing for use by American soldiers in Vietnam. Barbie and other German war criminals were recruited by the CIA when it was forming. They sent Barbie to Bolivia where their primary export was cocaine, (or some stage of cocaine’s production). “(Klaus) Barbie alias Altmann lived with his wife in the Bolivian capital (La Paz), where he ran a company called La Estrella, which supplied the Boehringer pharmaceutical company in the western German city of Mannheim with cinchona bark, from which the medication quinine was extracted.” SOURCE Boehringer has another interesting connection to chemicals used in the Vietnam War, as best explained by them: SOURCE. (Read the “fine print,” of course). Note to researchers: I can’t find any information on a U.S. government contract with Boehringer to provide Cinchona-based drugs. Needs research.

5.23.67. China begins Project 523 to aid North Vietnam by creating a cure for Malaria. They test 2000 ancient Chinese recipes. They determine that Artemisia Annua is the best. They isolate what they call qinghao, or what we call Artemisinin. From this point forward derivatives of Artemisia are preferred by the medical community over derivatives of Cinchona. SOURCE. Tu Youyou is later awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her work in this research.

STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN – DECEMBER 10: Chief Professor Tu Youyou, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine acknowledges applause after she received her Nobel Prize from King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden during the Nobel Prize Awards Ceremony at Concert Hall on December 10, 2015 in Stockholm, Sweden. (Photo by Pascal Le Segretain/WireImage).

August 1, 2009. “We demonstrate that chloroquine, a widely used drug with well-known antimalarial effects, inhibits HCoV-OC43 (Human Coronavirus) replication in HRT-18 cells, with a 50% effective concentration (± standard deviation) of 0.306 ± 0.0091 μM and a 50% cytotoxic concentration (± standard deviation) of 419 ± 192.5 μM, resulting in a selectivity index of 1,369. Further, we investigated whether chloroquine could prevent HCoV-OC43-induced death in newborn mice. Our results show that a lethal HCoV-OC43 infection in newborn C57BL/6 mice can be treated with chloroquine acquired transplacentally or via maternal milk. The highest survival rate (98.6%) of the pups was found when mother mice were treated daily with a concentration of 15 mg of chloroquine per kg of body weight. Survival rates declined in a dose-dependent manner, with 88% survival when treated with 5 mg/kg chloroquine and 13% survival when treated with 1 mg/kg chloroquine.” Antiviral Activity of Chloroquine against Human Coronavirus OC43 Infection in Newborn Mice

August 2014. We identified four compounds (chloroquine, chlorpromazine, loperamide, and lopinavir) inhibiting MERS-CoV replication in the low-micromolar range (50% effective concentrations [EC50s], 3 to 8 μM). Moreover, these compounds also inhibit the replication of SARS coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E. Although their protective activity (alone or in combination) remains to be assessed in animal models, our findings may offer a starting point for treatment of patients infected with zoonotic coronaviruses like MERS-CoV. Screening of an FDA-Approved Compound Library Identifies Four Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication in Cell Culture

Late 2019. The first case of COVID-19 appears to have begun in November-December of 2019 in China. Note: The exact location and date is unclear to me. If a reader knows of a definitive public source, please include it in the comment section.

1.31.21. The Department of Health and Human Services Determination that a Public Health Emergency Exists.  SOURCE

2.11.20. WHO named COVID-19.

2.24.20. Forty-two days after the genetic code was released, Moderna’s CEO Bancel opened an email on Feb. 24 on his cellphone and smiled, as he recalled to the Globe. Up popped a photograph of a box placed inside a refrigerated truck at the Norwood plant and bound for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in Bethesda, Md. The package held a few hundred vials, each containing the experimental vaccine.

On February 25, 2020, a NIH clinical trial of Remdesivir to treat COVID-19 began. “Participants in the NIH-sponsored trial must have laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and evidence of lung involvement, including rattling sounds when breathing (rales) with a need for supplemental oxygen or abnormal chest X-rays, or illness requiring mechanical ventilation. Individuals with confirmed infection who have mild, cold-like symptoms or no apparent symptoms will not be included in the study.”

3.X.20. Beginning in March 2020, Pfizer conducted numerous clinical trials and made various regulatory submissions in collaboration with BioNTech, in an effort to obtain emergency use authorization for the vaccine from the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”). Bloomberg.

By March, 2020, members of of the US COVID-19 Task Force had 10 peer-reviewed studies and seven observational reports that, according to Dr. Steven Hatfill, showed no concerns over adverse cardiac effects.

March 6, 2020. This is one of the videos from “Medcram” that Dr. Zev Zelenko mentioned influenced his development of HCL/Zinc treatment protocol. “Coronavirus Epidemic Update 32: Important Data from South Korea, Can Zinc Help Prevent COVID-19?”

3.13.20 President Donald J. Trump, Proclamation on Declaring a National Emergency Concerning the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). 

3.17.20. – 3.23.20. Rick Bright, in his whistleblower complaint, describes how Bayer lobbied BARDA to have their chloraquine products recommended for use to treat COVID-19 in March 2020. SOURCE

On March 18, 2020, Donald Trump had a press conference. He invoked the “Defense Production Act” in response to the COVID-19 Pandemic. “We’re going to defeat the invisible enemy. I think we’re going to do it even faster than we thought. And it will be a complete victory. It will be a total victory.”

On March 19, 2020, a reporter asked Anthony Fauci if there is any evidence to suggest that HCL could be a prophylaxis against COVID-19. ABC. Anthony Fauci: “The answer is no. And the evidence you’re talking about John is anecdotal evidence. So as the Commissioner of FDA and the President mentioned yesterday, we’re trying to strike a balance between making something to make something with a potential of an effect to the American people available at the same time that we do it under the auspices of a protocol that would give us information to determine if its truly safe and truly effective. But the information that you’re referring to specifically is anecdotal. It was not done in a controlled clinical trial.”

On March 21, 2020, President Trump tweeted about Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin. The President did not mention Zinc, a necessary counterpart to the zinc ionophore HCL. They later tested this combination to some unknown extent at Vanderbilt University. The Hydroxychloroquine/Azithromycin combination was later reported on May 1 to be a combination that caused cardiac problems. It calls into serious question the intentions or medical credentials of whoever designed this study (unknown to me at this time). The HCL/AZM combination is both far less likely to be effective and more likely to cause cardiac adverse events than the HCL/Zinc combination.

3.22.20. Could any of these drugs hold the key to saving coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from serious harm or death? On Friday, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced a large global trial, called SOLIDARITY, to find out whether any can treat infections with the new coronavirus for the dangerous respiratory disease. It’s an unprecedented effort—an all-out, coordinated push to collect robust scientific data rapidly during a pandemic. The study, which could include many thousands of patients in dozens of countries, has been designed to be as simple as possible so that even hospitals overwhelmed by an onslaught of COVID-19 patients can participate.  …  Scientists have suggested dozens of existing compounds for testing, but WHO is focusing on what it says are the four most promising therapies: an experimental antiviral compound called remdesivir; the malaria medications chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine; a combination of two HIV drugs, lopinavir and ritonavir; and that same combination plus interferon-beta, an immune system messenger that can help cripple viruses. Some data on their use in COVID-19 patients have already emerged—the HIV combo failed in a small study in China—but WHO believes a large trial with a greater variety of patients is warranted. Science Mag

On March 23, 2020,Secretary of Health and Human Services Alex Azar directs Rick Bright to establish an Investigational New Drug (IND) authorization of HCL. It is important to note that the directive of Azar specifically stated that the authorization of HCL should allow use outside of hospitals. The point being, that the HCL was to be distributed to and used in the general public at the first sign of symptoms or as a preventative measure. It is ineffective and senseless to wait until the disease has progressed to such a degree that hospitalization is required.

Judicial Watch FOIA request.pdf

On March 24, 2020, Dr. Janet Woodcock, FDA, directs Rick Bright to approve an Emergency Use Authorization for HCL instead of an Investigational New Drug (IND) authorization. The effect was to limit the use of HCL to hospitals.

3.26.20. FDA Warning Letter to “Corona Cure” for medical claims COVID. The letter doesn’t specify what active compounds were in the nasal spray. Information is difficult to find on the product. What’s clear is that when the FDA says that something is not to be spoken, internet search engines and social media platforms fall in line.

3.28.20. On March 28, 2020, the FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization for the use of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine from the “National Strategic Stockpile.” Later they revoked it.

4.X.20. “Algerian researchers had tested the effectiveness of malaria drugs against SARS-CoV-2 in April. Their study proved that artemisinin was more effective than hydroxychloroquine. Some scientists had considered the drug as a possible ingredient against COVID-19, but later discovered that it increases the mortality rate.” SOURCE. There are two statements here. 1: Artemisin is more effective than Hydroxychloroquine. That seems to be a consensus. It’s not that Cinchona Bark derivatives don’t work, it’s that Artemisia works better. 2. That Hydroxchloroquine “increases the mortality rate.” This is not proven, as the people who made the claim in the Lancent article later withdrew the article and would not provide their data.

4.1.20. Exposure Response and Outcomes (HERO) Registry and Hydroxychloroquine (HERO-HCQ) Trial and authorized the Executive Director to review, negotiate, and approve funding up to $50 million in total costs. PCORI issued the invitation and ultimately funded a strong application from Adrian Hernandez, MD at Duke University. The study team has assembled a Steering Committee to oversee the HERO Research Program co-chaired by Judith Currier, MD, MSc from the University of California, Los Angeles and Russell Rothman, MD, MPP from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Dr. Briggs began the update by noting that on April 1, 2020 the Board approved use of the mechanism of a PCORI-issued invitation to submit a proposal for funding of the Healthcare Worker Exposure Response and Outcomes (HERO) Registry and Hydroxychloroquine (HERO-HCQ) Trial and authorized the Executive Director to review, negotiate, and approve funding up to $50 million in total costs. PCORI issued the invitation and ultimately funded a strong application from Adrian Hernandez, MD at Duke University. The study team has assembled a Steering Committee to oversee the HERO Research Program co-chaired by Judith Currier, MD, MSc from the University of California, Los Angeles and Russell Rothman, MD, MPP from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Judicial Watch FOIA

4.2.20. The Front Lines: Vanderbilt physicians, researchers join worldwide fight against COVID-19. The ORCHID trial (Outcomes Related to COVID-19 treated with Hydroxychloroquine among In-patients with symptomatic Disease)—funded by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute of the NIH—enrolled its first patient April 2 and eventually will include hundreds of participants.

4.6.20. Katie Pavlich article: “Thousands of Doctors: Yes, Hydroxychloroquine Works Against Wuhan Coronavirus”. Townhall

4.13.20. “the Division of Anti-infective (DAI) products opened a priority Tracked
Safety Issue (TSI) 2150 to assess the risk of cardiac toxicity with hydroxychloroquine and
chloroquine with or without azithromycin when used for the treatment of COVID-19 caused by
severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.” Review Hydroxychloroquine-Chloroquine May 19 2020 Redacted.

4.20.20. Rick Bright is removed from his post at Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA). BARDA is “the federal agency charged with overseeing the rapid production of a vaccine.” ABC 11 Head of vaccine development alleges “cronyism’ after being removed from post

4.22.20. ABC 11: Head of vaccine development alleges ‘cronyism’ after being removed from post.  Dr. Rick Bright said he was transferred “in response to my insistence that the government invest the billions of dollars allocated by Congress to address the COVID-19 pandemic into safe and scientifically vetted solutions, and not in drugs, vaccines and other technologies that lack scientific merit.”  “I am speaking out because to combat this deadly virus, science — not politics or cronyism — has to lead the way,” Bright said in a statement that came less than 24 hours after the Department of Health and Human Services circulated an internal memo, reviewed by ABC News, saying he had been promoted to a position in another agency. “Sidelining me in the middle of this pandemic and placing politics and cronyism ahead of science puts lives at risk and stunts national efforts to safely and effectively address this urgent public health crisis.

On April 24, 2020, FDA issued a Drug Safety Communication (DSC) cautioning against the use
of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for COVID-19 outside of the hospital setting or a clinical
trial due to risk of arrhythmias. The DSC described reports of serious cardiac events, including
QT prolongation, in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, often in combination
with azithromycin and other QT prolonging medicines, for the prevention or treatment of

5.1.20. Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued an emergency use authorization for the investigational antiviral drug remdesivir for the treatment of suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in adults and children hospitalized with severe disease. While there is limited information known about the safety and effectiveness of using remdesivir to treat people in the hospital with COVID-19, the investigational drug was shown in a clinical trial to shorten the time to recovery in some patients. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Issues Emergency Use Authorization for Potential COVID-19 Treatment

5.05.20. Rick Bright files Whistleblower complaint

5.14.20. The Front Lines: Vanderbilt physicians, researchers join worldwide fight against COVID-19. As that debate continues, researchers at VUMC are leading two clinical trials to understand if, and to what extent, hydroxychloroquine is indeed safe and effective in treating health care workers and, by extension, hospitalized adults with COVID-19. The ORCHID trial (Outcomes Related to COVID-19 treated with Hydroxychloroquine among In-patients with symptomatic Disease)—funded by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute of the NIH—enrolled its first patient April 2 and eventually will include hundreds of participants. “Laboratory studies have suggested that hydroxychloroquine may be a useful drug to treat COVID-19,” says ORCHID trial lead investigator Dr. Wesley H. Self, MPH’11, associate professor of emergency medicine and an emergency physician at VUMC. “However, we have limited human data to understand if hydroxychloroquine helps patients recover from COVID-19. High quality clinical-trial data from studies like this are urgently needed to understand the safety and effectiveness of this drug in COVID-19.” Complementing ORCHID’s goals, the second trial also seeks to shed light on why some people do not exhibit any symptoms or become ill after being infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In addition, researchers hope to learn more about how hydroxychloroquine affects the immune system. Principal investigators of the trial are Justin Balko, associate professor of medicine, pathology, microbiology and immunology; Dr. Ingrid Mayer, MSCI’06, Ingram Professor of Cancer Research and professor of medicine; and Dr. Brian Rini, Ingram Professor of Cancer Research and professor of medicine. Despite the limited clinical data at this point, hydroxychloroquine has been adopted into treatment guidelines at some hospitals in China and the U.S. because no proven existing medications have been discovered to help prevent patients from getting worse. Vanderbilt University Medical Center also is playing a key role in a national effort to establish a registry of U.S. health care workers and test whether hydroxychloroquine is protecting them, their patients and their families from COVID-19. The Board of Governors of the nonprofit Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute in Washington, D.C., has approved up to $50 million to fund the initiative, known as the Healthcare Worker Exposure Response and Outcomes (HERO) research program, which is being led by the Duke Clinical Research Institute. Dr. Russell Rothman, Ingram Professor of Integrative and Population Health, professor of medicine, health policy and pediatrics, and senior vice president for population and public health at VUMC, serves as co-chair of the HERO Steering Committee with Dr. Judith Currier, professor of medicine and chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at UCLA Medical Center, Santa Monica. Fellow steering committee member Dr. Sean Collins, professor of emergency medicine and executive vice chair of the Department of Emergency Medicine at VUMC, leads Vanderbilt’s engagement in the HERO study and serves as the site’s principal investigator. He also is a member of the initiative’s Protocol Advisory Committee. The registry is recruiting tens of thousands of health care workers from across the country, including doctors, nurses, respiratory therapists and paramedics, many of whom work on the front lines of the coronavirus pandemic and are at high risk for COVID-19 infection. About 15,000 of them will participate in the study, a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial that began in late April. Leveraging the infrastructure of the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network and its more than 850,000 clinicians and hundreds of health systems (including VUMC), the study aims to answer two research questions: First, can hydroxychloroquine prevent COVID-19 infection in health care workers who are exposed to the virus? And second, can the drug lower virus levels in those who have been infected but do not have symptoms so that they are less likely to transmit the infection to others?

May 18, 2020. Pulitzer Center: on Monday, May 18, Trump confirmed that he was taking hydroxychloroquine to prevent contagion.

May 22, 2020. The“Lancent Article”is published, whose authors state that hydroxychloraquine and chloroquine use to treat COVID-19 results in decreased survival rates. Quote: “We were unable to confirm a benefit of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, when used alone or with a macrolide, on in-hospital outcomes for COVID-19. Each of these drug regimens was associated with decreased in-hospital survival (emphasis mine) and an increased frequency of ventricular arrhythmias when used for treatment of COVID-19.” SOURCE.

Catherine Offord: The study wasn’t a randomized controlled trial—the gold standard for determining a drug’s safety and efficacy—but it did purportedly draw from an enormous registry of observational data that Surgisphere claimed to have collected from the electronic medical records of nearly 100,000 COVID-19 patients across 671 hospitals on six continents. … Within days, public health bodies including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) instructed organizers of clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine as a COVID-19 treatment or prophylaxis to suspend recruitment, while the French government reversed an earlier decree allowing the drug to be prescribed to patients hospitalized with the virus.

May 28, 2020. An open letter is written to The Lancet and Mehra et al concerning the study where the authors stated that quinine derivatives caused “decreased in-hospital survival.” They basically call BS and demand that the authors show their data:   “The authors have not adhered to standard practices in the machine learning and statistics community. They have not released their code or data. There is no data/code sharing and availability statement in the paper. … There was no mention of the countries or hospitals that contributed to the data source and no acknowledgments of their contributions.  A request to the authors for information on the contributing centres was denied.  ….  “Both the numbers of cases and deaths, and the details provided, seem unlikely.” SOURCE

6.05.20. “Lancent Article” retracted.  Authors refused to transfer data they used for peer review.        /     Pulitzer: A group of 174 physicians, scientists, statisticians, and ethicists questioned the quality of the data and the methodology used to support the findings in The Lancet study. The group cited the study’s use of medical records of 96,032 patients treated in 671 hospitals, records which were collected by an unknown international consulting firm called Surgisphere. They demanded clarification on the terms of the data sharing agreements between Surgisphere and the governments and hospitals that provided the patient information, but the authors refused. In a letter to the editor of The Lancet, they asked the WHO to conduct an independent verification of the data. The journal retracted the study; suspicions that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were harming the patients receiving coronavirus treatments still remained. 

6.15.20. FDA Letter Revoking The Emergency Use Authorization of Chloroquine Phosphate and Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate. SOURCE

6.25.20? Twitter Account.

7.27.20. Houston Chronicle: Dr. Stella Immanuel and a group referring to themselves as “America’s Frontline Doctors” assembled on the steps of the United States Supreme Court. Immanuel said she has treated over 350 patients with the drug and not one person has died. “If they put everybody on hydroxychloroquine right now, for those with early disease and those that want to get prevention,” said Immanuel. “I’m telling you, it would stop covid in its tracks in 30 days.”

Partial video here.

10.22.20. A Houston medical doctor has been exonerated by the Texas Medical Board (TMB) of an accusation of malpractice stemming from his use of hydroxychloroquine to treat coronavirus patients. The Texan.